The family planning policy, known as theone-child policy in the West, is a population control policy of the People's Republic of China. The term "one-child" is inexact as the policy allows many exceptions and ethnic minorities are exempt. In 2007, 36% of China's population was subject to a strict one-child restriction; an additional 53% was allowed to have a second child if the first was a girl. The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. "Population and Family Planning Commissions" exist at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.The policy was introduced in 1979 to alleviate social, economic and environmental problems in China. Demographers estimate that the policy averted at least 200 million births between 1979 and 2009. A 2008 survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center reported that 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy; however, it is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.